Lesson 3

                             The Two Worlds

      Again we must deepen our theoretical grasp a little more before we can
continue effectively.  It seems clear that a symbol stands for something else,
but it is not that for which it stands.  A flag stands for a nation, but is
not the nation.  The word 'flag' can stand for the class of all flags, an
indefinite member of the class, or an actual particular flag, but it is not
itself a flag.  The word 'circle' stands for a circle that is drawn and for
the perfect circle that can never be drawn, but can only be meant.  In fact,
some thinkers believe that the perfect circles, lions, tables, etc. are the 
real 'things' symbolized.  At this point in our study we need to be aware that
there are at least three possible ingredients in the process of symbolization:
the symbol itself, the thing(s) symbolized (also called the referent), and the
link(s) or relation(s) between them, which is sometimes called the 'meaning'.
      But what does this have to do with grammar?  Simply this:  words are
symbols that have two very general functions:  reference and relation.  As 
Plato suggests, words refer to something that exists outside and beyond the
linguistic context in the 'real' world which we will call the surd (i.e.
speechless) world.  Whereas reference extends outside the system, relation
pertains within the system.  As Plato again suggests, this second function of
words is their relation to one another in their own world, which we will call
word world.  Now we are better prepared to give a more thorough description of
all the word-types used in Set #3.  Consider this chart:

   Type                Reference to Surd World   Relation within Word World
    1      Verb         names an action           forms base (predicates)
    2      Adverb       names a quality           modifies a verb
    3      Noun         names an object           is subject of a verb        
    4      Adjective    names a quality or        modifies a noun
                              a quantity

      Now make up three sentences with each of the form- and function-types 
from above, and label each word with its form-type above and its function

From a linguistic point of view what are the components of surd world so far? Review your definitions of subject and predicate; try to state precisely what 'modification' is. Note that Word World is no democracy in which all are equals. What do you observe about the dependence or governance of words? List your observations here: Components-

Now consider the next set of sentences. Example Set #4 a. We forget foolish fads. b. You save beautiful art. c. They praise some scholars. d. She hears the fat elf. e. It chases little birds. How is 'fads' here different from 'fads' in Set #3? What is the difference between the word 'forget' here and the word 'fade' in Set #3? They both seem to make an assertion. In the sentences 'Santa laughs' and "He laughs' how do the subjects differ from each other? Is word-position any help in describing the new types and functions? How does the new word-type resemble a variable in algebra? Note your observations here:  

Now on ODDS find, circle (perhaps in red), and number five (5) examples of the type like 'we', five words that function like 'fads' in Set #4, and five verbs like 'forget', labelling them as P, O or T respectively in their circle: P for Pronoun, O for Object, and T for Transitive. Be sure to hand in your properly annotated ODDs at the next class meeting.