Lesson 2

              The Simplest Sentence Reconsidered and Expanded

      Before we can proceed to expand and develop these rudimentary kernel
sentences, we must study them more closely and achieve a more precise
theoretical understanding of what is really going on;  otherwise, we will be
very much like an architect who tries to design a building without any
knowledge of engineering,-  that is, without knowing the proper functions of 
the different materials and the relative strengths of various structures. 
Let us start then by summarizing Plato's remarks:  a word is an uninterrupted 
series of contiguous letters that fit together;  words are the basic 
components of speech;  words come in at least two types;  to make a
'statement' we need both the types considered by Plato.  Plato's 'statement' 
is our sentence.  Consider the following chart:

         WORD         (historical) FORM                FUNCTION (in sentence)
         Type #1            (verb)      asserts action          (predicate)
         Type #2            (noun)      names actor             (subject)

This is still very incomplete, but it is enough for a solid start.  Now make
up three (3) sentences with the same pattern or structure as those below;
write them down on a separate piece of paper to pass in and label each word 
according to its form and function. Click on Next for examples:

Set#2                                 FORM                   FUNCTION
                                 VERB      NOUN         SUBJECT    PREDICATE

Now reconsider the examples in Set #1. What seems to be missing? The actor-naming subject is understood; it is the 'you' to whom the command is directed. Thus, the 'utterances' in Set #1 are also sentences. One kind of sentence is called 'declarative', another is 'imperative', and still another is 'interrogative'. On sheet to hand in write an example of each type and label it: LABEL            

Now consider the next set of sentences: Example Set #3 a. Foolish fads fade quickly. b. Beautiful art endures forever. c. Some scholars work hard. d. The fat elf laughs aloud. e. Little birds fly together. Here we have some new kinds of words: what do they do? To what do they do it? Do you notice any patterns? Could we use the position of the word in the sentence to determine its function? Are there words that seem different in type (because of word-position or whatever) and that seem still to have a similar function? List your observations and suggestions here Some words follow or precede others which affect them. A new kind of word expresses the qualities of others. Other words come before nouns & after verbs, modifying them. Some words are just padding to make the sentence longer.
Now on ODDS pick out examples of these new types of words (mark 10 [ten] examples of each type numbering each type separately). As you re-read Plato this time, consider whether 'walks' itself walks or whether 'lion' is a lion. What does Plato mean when he says that "the signs that we use in speech to signify being"? Do the words 'unicorn', 'Hamlet', 'ghost', 'flag', 'circle', or 'truth' signify or refer to anything real,- that is to any being? All in the same way? Does the word 'meaning' mean anything? Note your observations here before continuing: Of course, a lion is a lion and walks means to walk. A word is a sound and different from what it signifies. Sounds and meanings can be the same or they can be different. Some do not believe in ghosts or unicorns, but only in what they see.